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Concourse 2

Causatives

make it so
Make it so

Analyses of causatives in English are often confined to the causative verbs have and get as in, e.g.,

  1. I'm having the car serviced
  2. I'll get the car serviced

There is, in fact quite a lot more to it than that, as we shall see.


cause and effect

Cause and effect

English has a number of ways to express the fact that the subject of a verb causes a change to the object.  Here are some examples and they are all ways of saying something caused something to happen in English.

  1. The key opened the box
  2. They have widened the street
  3. Her antagonism irritated him
  4. The sun warmed the air
  5. The police marched the suspect in and stood him against the wall for a photograph
  6. She's walking the dog

Some of the causative verbs in these examples can be used both transitively (taking an object) and intransitively (with no object).  We can have
    The box opened (3)
    The air warmed
(6)
    the suspect marched in and stood against the wall
(7)
    the dog is walking
(8).
In other cases, we can't do this and have to use an alternative verb to rephrase the idea intransitively:
    the street got wider (4)
    he became irritated
(5).


other languages

English and other languages

Other languages handle transitivity like this in very different ways.
In some, verbs may take what is called the ergative case when used intransitively and the noun (and adjective and article, often) will be marked to show it so those languages can produce
    he irritated
(to mean became irritated)
    the dog walked
(to mean was walked)
    the door opened
and so on.
In other languages, such as Malay, a verb can be the same in both transitive and intransitive uses but will take a suffix or other change to show whether it is being used transitively or intransitively.
English does neither of these things but shows transitivity by word order, structure or rephrasing with a different verb.  For example,
    I washed the car
vs. the car was washed
    someone broke the window
vs. the window got broken
    his hand rose
vs. he raised his hand
etc.
Occasionally, English can make a kind of ergative with something like
    the glass broke
    the picture faded

or
    the door opened
.
English can, like many languages, also make a transitive verb intransitive by using a reflexive as in, e.g.
    the problem solved itself
    the house shook itself to pieces
    the car drives itself
etc.
Lots of languages do that much more extensively than English.

So what?

This all matters because the idea of transitivity is fundamental to understanding the verb structures of any language.  Without knowing about it, it is hardly possible to use verbs accurately at all.  Speakers of many languages which can use the same word in both transitive and intransitive ways will, therefore, make errors such as:

  1. *he angered (for became angry)
  2. *he fell the glass (for dropped the glass)
  3. *the bad weather died the flowers
  4. *he rose his hand
  5. *I reminded (to mean I remembered)
  6. *I interested (to mean I became interested)
  7. *we'll meet us
    etc.

Summary: causative verbs vs. causative structures

There is, therefore, an important distinction between

the causative verbs
such as the ones in the examples above, which express the fact that the subject has caused a change in the object and
the causative structure
such as
    I had the car washed
    They made him tell the truth
    They had their house broken into
and so on, which express the fact that the subject caused another to do something or something was done to the subject which was unwelcome or unfortunate.

explain

Causative verbs

I made him explain it to me  

There are three causative verbs in particular with which learners have a certain amount of trouble.  Here are examples of them:

  1. I had him explain it to me
  2. I made him explain it to me
  3. I let him explain it to me

Why should learners have trouble with these?  Click here when you have an answer.


roof

The causative structures

Now that we know about causative verbs, we can look at causative structures.

Here are six examples:

  1. I'm having the house painted
  2. I'm getting the car serviced by the people who sold it to me
  3. I'm having the people who sold me the car service it
  4. I'm getting John to paint the house
  5. He got his wallet stolen by someone on the train
  6. She got her hand caught in the lift doors

What do you notice about meaning?
What do you notice about form?
Click here when you have some notes.

The causative is not simple.  Here's a summary:
summary


form

Tense forms and modality with causative structures

Simple tenses are common with the structures.  For example:

  1. I have my car serviced regularly
  2. I got the house painted
  3. I am getting the work done next week
  4. I will have to have it fixed
  5. He's going to have it done
  6. He will be having the kitchen installed all next week

Because have is not used statively in the causative, the progressive form is common.

Causative structures combine very naturally with various aspects and modal auxiliary verbs to create complex tense forms.  For example

  1. I'm sorry I'm late.  I have been having my eyes tested (present perfect progressive causative)
  2. He must have been having his roof repaired (perfect progressive modal form causative)
  3. He had been having his old shoes repaired for years before he bought a new pair (past perfect progressive causative)
  4. He will have been having his house painted again before the year's out, I expect (future perfect progressive causative)

teach

Teaching causatives


problems

Problems

There are five related difficulties for learners in this area:

  1. The forms, especially in terms of word order, are complex, unusual and difficult to remember.
  2. We saw above that other languages handle transitivity and causative verbs very differently from English so there are many possibilities for confusion.  This leads to errors such as
        *I cut my hair at the salon
    or
        *I stolen my car
    .
  3. There are complex issues with meaning: arrangement, misfortune and fraud.  Learners may misinterpret what they hear or produce unintended meanings.
  4. There are complexities of form with ordering of two objects and the use of the to-infinitive.  This leads to errors such as:
        *I am getting him painted my house
        *She is having him to do it
    etc.
  5. Because of 1, 2, 3 and 4, learners often avoid the structures and rely on unnatural circumlocutions such as:
        My car was repaired (when I had the car repaired is intended)
    or
        The hairdresser cut my hair
    .
suggest

Suggestions

Complexity
Drill until the forms are produced adequately.  Simply drilling of the form isn't enough.  You need to explain where the weak forms are and how the stress patterns work across the sentence or clause.
Beware the complex tense forms until the simple forms and the word ordering have been mastered.  Forms such as
    He had been having his old shoes repaired for years before he bought a new pair
are not at all easy to unpack.
Use sentence re-ordering exercises.
Try Dictogloss techniques to get the learners to reconstruct the forms.
(There are some other ideas for drilling and dictation in the teacher development guide to techniques.)
Transitivity issues
Make sure you have some idea of how your students' languages handle the concept.  Ask them if you aren't sure because a little comparative language work often pays dividends.
Concept checking has to be done continually when teaching the area.  Students' understanding of who is doing what to whom with what has to be made overt.
In a sentence such as
    Mary is having the garage fix her moped
questions such as
    What is being fixed?
    Who owns the moped?
    Is Mary fixing it?
    Who is fixing the moped?
    What has Mary arranged?

etc. are vital for understanding and checking understanding.
And you need to check with individuals rather than be satisfied with the strongest calling out.
Meaning
Keep to one verb at a time initially because the shades of meaning between have and get are very difficult to grasp.
Start with have for arrangements only.  Insert get later with the same meaning (and make it clear that it is stylistically less formal, usually) and only later introduce the idea of misfortune.
Much later, if at all, introduce the idea of fraud.
Two objects and the use of the to-infinitive
Don't introduce a second object until the form and meaning of causative structures with a single object has been mastered.
Focus on one verb at a time (usually have) because the use of the bare infinitive works fine with make and let, too, the verbs are probably familiar and the concepts are allied.
Introduce the get + to-infinitive in combination with ask to, arrange to, want to etc. because the forms are familiar and parallel.  It's a short structural and conceptual jump from I want him to go and I got him to go.
(See the guide to other catenative (chain forming) verbs which follow this pattern linked in the list of related guides at the end.)
Avoidance
Set up a clear context in which the forms are required, not optional.
Example 1
Having a street plan and the names of shops and services on it can be used to exemplify and practice.  Get the learners to follow you around town on the map while you relate the events.  E.g.
    First I'm having my hair done
(students number the hairdresser's as '1')
    then I'm getting my clothes cleaned
    then I'm having my shoes repaired
    then I'll try to get my laptop sorted out
etc.
When they have followed you around by the prompts, they can follow each other using similar prompts.
(This idea is from Obee, 1999:101.)
Example 2
Choose a topic of someone temporarily disabled by a broken arm, for example, and focus on what that person currently must have done by someone else that they would normally do themselves:
    wash the car
    do the shopping
    tie shoelaces
    change a light bulb

etc.


Related guides
catenative verbs for the guide (mostly) to the use of the infinitive vs. the gerund
the passive for the guide to how and when the passive is used



Reference:
Obee, B, 1999, The Grammar Activity Book, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press